Afterthat the ten tribes had fallen away fro God by the wicked & subtile cousel of Ieroboam the sonne of Nebat, & in stead of his true seruice comanded by his word worshipped him according to their owne fantasies & traditions of me, giuing theselues to most vile idolatry & superstitio, the Lord fro time to time sent them Prophets to cal them to repentance: but they grew euer worse & worse, and stil abused Gods benefits. Therefore now when their prosperity was at the highest vnder Ieroboam the sonne of Ioash, God sent Hosea and Amos to the Israelites (as he did at the same time Isaiah & Micah to them of Iudah) to condemne them of their ingratitude: and whereas they thought themselues to be greatly in the fauour of God, & to be his people, the Prophet calleth them bastards & children borne in adultery: and therefore sheweth them that God would take away their kingdom, & giue them to the Assyrias to be led away captiues. Thus Hosea faithfully executed his office for the space of seuentie yeres, though they remained still in their vices & wickednes, & derided the Prophets, & contemned Gods iudgements. And because they should neither be discouraged with threatnings onely, nor yet flatter them selues by the sweetnes of Gods promises, he setteth before them the two principal parts of the Law, which are the promes of saluation, and the doctrine of life: for the first part he directeth the faithful to Messiah, by whom only they should haue true deliuerance: and for the second, he vseth threatnings & menaces to bring them from their wicked maners & vices, & this is the chiefe scope of all the Prophets, either by Gods promises to allure them to be godly, els by threatnings of his iudgements to feare them from vice: and albeit that the whole Law conteine these two points, yet the Prophets moreouer note peculiarly both the time of Gods iudgements and the maner.
1 The time wherein Hosea prophesied. 2 The idolatrie of the people. 10 The calling of the Gentiles. 11 Christ is the head of all people.
1 The worde of the Lorde that came vnto Hosea the sonne of Beeri, in the daies [Note: [a] Called also Azariah, who being a leper was deposed from his kingdom. ] of Vzziah, Iotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah [Note: [b] So that it may be gathered by the reigne of these foure Kings, that he preached aboue three score yeere. ] Kings of Iudah, and in the daies of Ieroboam the sonne of Ioash king of Israel.
2 At the beginning the Lorde spake by Hosea, and the Lord said vnto Hosea, Goe, [Note: [c] That is, one that of long time hath accustomed to play the harlot: not that the Prophet did this thing in effect, but hee sawe this in a vision, or els was commaunded by God to set foorth vnder this parable or figure the idolatrie of the Synagogue, and of the people her children. ] take vnto thee a wife of fornicatios, and children of fornications: for the lande hath committed great whoredome, departing from the Lord.
3 So he went, & tooke [Note: [d] Gomer signifieth a consumption or corruption & Diblaim clusters of figs, declaring, that they were all corrupt like rotten figges. ] Gomer, ye daughter of Diblaim, which conceiued & bare him a sonne.
4 And the Lord said vnto him, Cal his name [Note: [e] Meaning, yt they should be no more called Israelites, of the which name they boasted, because Israel did preuaile with God: but that they were as bastardes, and therefore should be called Izreelites, yt is, scattered people, alluding to Izreel, which was the chief city of ye ten tribes vnder Ahab where Iehu shed so much blood, 2.Kin. 10.8. ] Izreel: for yet a litle, and I will visite the blood of Izreel vpon the house [Note: [f] I wil be reuenged vpon Iehu for the blood that he shed in Izreel: for albeit God stirred him vp to execute his iudgemets, yet he did them for his owne ambition, and not for the glory of God, as the end declared: for he built vp that idolatrie, which he had destroied. ] of Iehu, and will cause to cease the kingdome of the house of Israel.
5 And at that [Note: [g] When ye measure of their iniquitie is ful, and I shal take vengeance and destroy all their policie and force. ] day will I also breake the bowe of Israel in the valley of Izreel.
6 She conceiued yet againe, & bare a daughter, and God saide vnto him, Call her name [Note: [h] That is, not obteining mercy: whereby he signifieth, yt Gods fauour was departed fro them. ] Lo-ruhamah: [Page]
for I will no more haue pitie vpon the house of Israel: but I wil vtterly [Note: [i] For the Israelites neuer returned, after that they were taken captiues by the Assyrians. ] take them away.
7 Yet I will haue mercie vpon the house of Iudah, and wil [Note: [k] For after their captiuitie he restored them myraculously by the meanes of Cyrus, Ezra 1.1. ] saue them by the Lord their God, and wil not saue them by bow, nor by sword nor by battell, by horses, nor by horsemen.
8 Nowe when she had wained Lo-ruhamah, shee conceiued, and bare a sonne.
9 Then saide God, Call his name [Note: [l] That is, not my people. ] Lo-ammi: for yee are not my people: therefore will I not be yours.
10 Yet the nomber of the [Note: [m] Because they thought that God coulde not haue beene true in his promes except he had preserued them, he declareth, that though they were destroied, yet the true Israelites, which are the sonnes of the promes, shoulde be without nomber, which stande both of the Iewes, and the Gentiles, Rom.9.26. ] children of Israel shall be as the sande of the sea, which can not be measured nor tolde: and in the place where it was saide vnto them, Yee are not my people, it shall be saide vnto them, Yee are the sonnes of the liuing God.
11 Then shall the children of Iudah, and the children of Israel be [Note: [n] To wit, after the captiuitie of Babylon when the Iewes were restored: but chiefly this is referred to the time of Christ, who shoulde be the head both of the Iewes and Gentiles. ] gathered together, and appoint them selues one head, & they shal come vp out of the land: for great is the [Note: [o] The calamitie and destruction of Izreel shall be so great, that to restore them shall be as a miracle. ] day of Izreel.
1 The people is called to repentance. 5 He sheweth their idolatrie and threatneth them except they repent.
1 Say vnto your [Note: [a] Seeing yt I haue promised you deliuerance, it remaineth that you incourage one an other to embrace the same, considering that ye are my people on whome I wil haue mercie. ] brethren, Ammi, and to your sisters, Ruhamah,
2 Plead with your [Note: [b] God sheweth that the faute was not in him but in their Synagogue, & their idolatries, that he forsooke them, Isa.50.1. ] mother: plead with her: for she is not my wife, neither am I her husband: but let her take away her fornications out of her sight, & her adulteries [Note: [c] Meaning, that their idolatrie was so great, that they were not ashamed, but boasted of it, Ezek.16.25. ] from betweene her breasts.
3 [Note: [d] For though this people were as an harlot for their idolatries, yet hee had left them with their apparell and dowrie & certaine signes of his fauor, but if they continued stil, he would vtterly destroy them. ] Lest I strippe her naked, and set her as in the day that shee was borne, [Note: [e] When I brought her out of Egypt, Eze.16.4,39. ] and make her as a wildernes, and leaue her like a drie land, and slaie her for thirst.
4 And I wil haue no pitie vpon her children: for they be the [Note: [f] That is, bastards and begotten in adulterie. ] children of fornications.
5 For their mother hath plaied the harlot: she that conceiued them, hath done shamefully: for shee said, I will goe after my [Note: [g] Meaning, the idols which they serued & by whom they thought they had wealth and abundance. ] louers that giue me my bread and my water, my wooll and my flaxe, mine oyle and my drinke.
6 Therefore beholde, I will stoope [Note: [h] I wil punish thee that then thou maiest trie whether thine idoles can helpe thee, and bring thee into such streightnesse, that thou shalt haue no lust to play the wanton. ] thy way with thornes, and make an hedge, that shee shall not finde her pathes.
7 Though shee followe after her louers, yet shall shee not come at them: though shee seeke them, yet shall shee not finde them: then shall she say, [Note: [i] This he speaketh of the faithful, which are truely conuerted, and also sheweth the vse and profite of Gods rods. ] I will goe and returne to my first husbande: for at that time was I better then nowe.
8 Nowe she did not knowe that I [Note: [k] This declareth that idolaters defraude God of his honour when they attribute his benefites to their idoles. ] gaue her corne, and wine, and oyle, and multiplied her siluer and golde, which they bestowed vpon Baal.
9 Therefore wil I returne, and take away [Note: [l] Signifying that God will take away his benefits when man by his ingratitude doeth abuse them. ] my corne in the time thereof, and my wine in the season thereof, and will recouer my wool and my flaxe lent, to couer her shame.
10 And now will I discouer her [Note: [m] That is, all her seruice, ceremonies and inuentions whereby shee worshipped her idoles. ] lewdnes in the sight of her louers, and no man shall deliuer her out of mine hand.
11 I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast daies, her newe moones, and her Sabbathes, and all her solemne feasts.
12 And I wil destroy her vines & her figtrees, whereof she hath said, These are my rewards that my louers haue giuen mee: and I will make them as a forest, and the wilde beasts shall eate them.
13 And I wil visit vpon her the daies of [Note: [n] I will punish her for her idolatrie. ] Baalim, wherein shee burnt incense to them: and shee decked her selfe with her [Note: [o] By shewing how harlots trimme them selues to please others, he declareth how the superstitious idolaters set a great part of their religion in decking them selues on their holy daies. ] earings and her iewels, and shee folowed her louers, and forgate me, saith the Lorde.
14 Therefore beholde, I will [Note: [p] By my benefites in offring her grace and mercie, euen in that place where shee shall thinke her selfe destitute of all helpe and comfort. ] allure her, and bring her into the wildernesse, and speake friendly vnto her.
15 And I will giue her her vineyardes from thence, and the valley [Note: [q] Which was a plentifull valley, and wherein they had great comfort when they came out of the wildernes, as Iosh.7.26. and is called the doore of hope, because it was a departing from death, and an entrie into life. ] of Achor for the doore of hope, and shee shall [Note: [r] Shee shall then praise God as shee did when she was deliuered out of Egypt. ] sing there as in the daies of her youth, and as in the daies when shee came vp out of the land of Egypt.
16 And at that day, sayeth the Lord, thou shalt call me [Note: [s] That is, mine husband, knowing that I am ioyned to thee by an inuiolable couenant. ] Ishi, and shalt call me no more [Note: [t] That is, my master: which name was applied to their idoles. ] Baali.
17 For I will take away the names of Baalim out of her mouth, and they shall be no more remembred by their [Note: [u] No idolatrie shall once come into their mouth, but they shal serue me purely according to my worde. ] names.
18 And in that day wil I make a couenant for them, with the [Note: [x] Meaning, that hee will so blesse them that all creatures shall fauour them. ] wilde beasts, and with the foules of the heauen, and with that that creepeth vpon the earth: and I will breake the bowe, and the sworde and the battell out of the earth, and will make them to sleepe safely.
19 And I wil marry thee vnto me for euer: yea, I will marry thee vnto me in righteousnes, and in iudgement, and in mercy and in compassion.
20 I will euen marry thee vnto me in [Note: [y] With a couenant that neuer shall be broken. ] faithfulnes, and thou shalt knowe the Lord.
21 And in that day I wil heare, saith the Lord, I will euen heare [Note: [z] Then shall the heauen desire raine for the earth which shall bring foorth for the vse of man. ] the heauens, and they shall heare the earth,
22 And the earth shall heare the corne, & the wine, and the oyle, and they shall heare Izreel.
23 And I will sowe her vnto me in the earth, and I will haue mercie vpon her, that was not pitied, and I will say to them which were not my people, [Note: Rom.9.15. 1.pet.2.10. ] Thou art my people. And they shal say, Thou art my God.
1 The Iewes shalbe cast off for their idolatrie. 5 Afterward they shall returne to the Lorde.
1 Then said the Lord to me, [Note: [a] Herein the Prophet representeth the person of God, which loued his Church before he called her, and did not withdrawe the same when shee gaue her selfe to idoles. ] Goe yet, and loue a woman (beloued of her husbande, and was an harlot) according to the loue of the Lorde toward the children of Israel: yet they looked to other gods, and [Note: [b] That is, gaue them selues wholy to pleasures, and coulde not take vp, as they that are giuen to drunkennesse. ] loued the wine bottels.
2 So [Note: [c] Yet I loued her and paied a small portion for her, least shee perceiuing the greatnesse of my loue, shoulde haue abused mee and not beene vnder duetie: for fifteene pieces of siluer were but halfe the price of a slaue, Exodus 21.32. ] I bought her to me for fifteene pieces of siluer, and for an homer of barlie and an halfe homer of barlie.
3 And I said vnto her, Thou shalt abide with [Note: [d] I will trie thee a long time as in thy widowehoode whether thou wilt bee mine or no. ] me many dayes: thou shalt not play the harlot, and thou shalt be to none other man, and I will be so vnto thee.
4 For the children of Israel shall [Note: [e] Meaning, not onely all the time of their captiuitie, but also vnto Christ. ] remaine [Page]
[The land shall mourne.]
many dayes without a King & without a [Note: [f] That is, they shoulde neither haue policie nor religion, and their idoles also wherein they put their confidence, should be destroyed. ] prince, and without an offering, and without an image, and without an Ephod and without Teraphim.
5 Afterward shall the children of Israel conuert, and seeke the Lorde their God, and [Note: [g] This is ment of Christes kingdom, which was promised vnto Dauid to bee eternall, Psalm.72.17. ] Dauid their King, and shall feare the Lord, and his goodnes in the latter dayes.
A complaint against the people, and the Priestes of Israel.
1 Heare the worde of the Lord, ye children of Israel: for the Lord [Note: [a] Because the people would not obey the admonitions of the Prophet, he citeth them before the iudgement seate of God, against who they chiefly offended, Isa.7.12. Zecha. 12.10. mich.6.1,2. ] hath a controuersie with the inhabitants of the lande, because there is no trueth nor mercie nor knowledge of God in the lande.
2 By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and whoring they breake out, and [Note: [b] In euery place appeareth a libertie to most hainous vices, so that one foloweth in the necke of another. ] blood toucheth blood.
3 Therefore shall the land mourne, and euery one that dwelleth therein, shall be cut off, with the beasts of the fielde, and with the foules of the heauen, and also the fishes of the sea shall be taken away.
4 Yet [Note: [c] As though he would say, that it were in vaine to rebuke them: for no man can abide it: yea, they will speake against the Prophets & priests whose office it is chiefely to rebuke them. ] let none rebuke, nor reproue another: for thy people are as they that rebuke the Priest.
5 Therefore shalt thou fall in the [Note: [d] Ye shall perish all together: the one, because he would not obey, and the other because he woulde not admonish. ] day, and the Prophet shall fall with thee in the night, and I will destroy thy [Note: [e] That is, the Synagogue wherein thou boastest. ] mother.
6 My people are destroyed for lacke of knowledge: because [Note: [f] That is, the Priestes shall be cast off, because that for lacke of knowledge, they are not able to execute their charge, and instruct others, Deut.33.3. Mal.2.7. ] thou hast refused knowledge, I will also refuse thee, that thou shalt be no Priest to me: and seeing [Note: [g] Meaning, the whole body of the people, which were wearie with hearing the word of God. ] thou hast forgotten the Lawe of thy God, I will also forget thy children.
7 As they were [Note: [h] The more I was beneficiall vnto them. ] increased, so they sinned against me: therefore will I chaunge their glorie into shame.
8 [Note: [i] To wit, ye Priests seeke to eate the peoples offerings and flatter them in their sinnes. ] They eate vp the sinnes of my people, and lift vp their mindes in their iniquitie.
9 And there shalbe like people, like [Note: [k] Signifying, that as they haue sinned together, so shall they be punished together. ] Priest: for I wil visite their wayes vpon them, and reward them their deedes.
10 For they shall eate, and not haue ynough: they shall [Note: [l] Shewing, that their wickednesse shall be punished on all sortes: for though they thinke by the multitude of wiues to haue many children, yet they shall be deceiued of their hope. ] commit adulterie, & shall not increase, because they haue left off to take heede to ye Lord.
11 [Note: [m] In giuing themselues to pleasures, they become like brute beastes. ] Whoredome, and wine, and newe wine take away their heart.
12 My [Note: [n] Thus he speaketh by derision in calling them his people, which nowe for their sinnes they were not: for they sought helpe of stockes and stickes. ] people aske counsell at their stockes, and their staffe teacheth them: for the [Note: [o] They are caried away with a rage. ] spirite of fornications hath caused them to erre, and they haue gone a whoring from vnder their God.
13 They sacrifice vpon the toppes of ye mountaines, and burne incense vpon the hilles vnder the okes, and the poplar tree, and the elme, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters shall be [Note: [p] Because they take away Gods honour, and giue it to idoles, therefore he will giue them vp to their lustes, that they shall dishonour their owne bodies, Rom.1.28. ] harlots, and your spouses shall be whores.
14 I will not [Note: [q] I will not correct your shame to bring you to amendment, but let you runne headlong to your owne damnation. ] visite your daughters when they are harlots: nor your spouses when they are whores: for they themselues are separated with harlots, and sacrifice with whores: therefore the people that doeth not vnderstand, shall fall.
[Princes and Priestes.]
15 Though thou, Israel, play the harlot, yet [Note: [r] God complaineth that Iudah is infected, and willeth the to learne by their example to returne in time. ] let not Iudah sinne: come not ye vnto [Note: [s] For albeit the Lord hath honoured this place in time past by his presence, yet because it was abused by their idolatrie, he would not that his people should resort thither. ] Gilgal, neither goe ye vp to [Note: [t] He calleth Bethel, that is, the house of God, Beth-auen, that is, the house of iniquitie, because of their abominations set vp there, signifying that no place is holy where God is not purely worshipped. ] Beth-auen, nor sweare, The Lord liueth.
16 For Israel is rebellious as an vnruly heyfer. Nowe the Lord will feede them as a [Note: [u] God will so disperse them that they shall not remaine in any certaine place. ] lambe in a large place.
17 Ephraim is ioyned to idoles: let him alone.
18 Their drunkennes stinketh: they haue committed whoredome: their rulers loue to say with shame, [Note: [x] They are so impudent in receiuing bribes, that they wil comand men to bring the vnto them. ] Bring ye.
19 The winde hath [Note: [y] To cary them suddenly away. ] bounde them vp in her wings, and they shalbe ashamed of their sacrifices.
1 Against the Priestes and rulers of Israel. 13 The helpe of man is in vaine.
1 O ye Priestes, heare this, and hearken ye, O house of Israel, and giue ye eare, O house of the King: for iudgement is towarde you, because you haue bene a [Note: [a] The Priests and princes catched the poore people in their snares as the foulers did the birds, in those two high mountaines. ] snare on Mizpah, and a net spred vpon Tabor.
2 Yet they were profounde, to decline to [Note: [b] Notwithstanding they seemed to be giuen altogether to holynesse, and to sacrifices, which here he calleth slaughter in contempt. ] slaughter, though I haue bene a [Note: [c] Though I had admonished them continually by my Prophets. ] rebuker of them all.
3 I knowe [Note: [d] They boasted themselues not onely to be Israelites, but also Ephraimites, because their King Ieroboam came of that tribe. ] Ephraim, and Israel is not hid from me: for nowe, O Ephraim thou art become an harlot, and Israel is defiled.
4 They will not giue their mindes to turne vnto their God: for the spirit of fornication is in the middes of them, and they haue not knowen the Lord.
5 And the [Note: [e] Meaning, their contemning of all admonitions. ] pride of Israel doth testifie to his face: therefore shal Israel and Ephraim fall in their iniquitie: Iudah also shall fall with them.
6 They shall goe with their sheepe, and with their bullockes to seeke the Lorde: but they shall not finde him: for he hath withdrawne himselfe from them.
7 They haue transgressed against the Lorde: for they haue begotte [Note: [f] That is, their children are degenerate, so that there is no hope in them. ] strange children: now shal [Note: [g] Their destruction is not farre off. ] a moneth deuoure them with their portions.
8 Blowe ye the trumpet in Gibeah, and the shaume in Ramah: crie out at Beth-auen, after thee, O [Note: [h] That is, all Israel comprehended vnder this parte, signifying that the Lords plagues should pursue them from place to place till they were destroyed. ] Beniamin.
9 Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke: among the tribes of Israel haue I caused to [Note: [i] By the successe they shall knowe that I haue surely determined this. ] knowe the trueth.
10 The princes of Iudah were like them that [Note: [k] They haue turned vpside downe all politicall order, and all maner of religion. ] remoue the bounde: therefore will I powre out my wrath vpon them like water.
11 Ephraim is oppressed, and broken in iudgement, because he willingly walked after the [Note: [l] To wit, after King Ieroboams commandement and did not rather followe God. ] commandement.
12 Therefore wil I be vnto Ephraim as a moth, and to the house of Iudah as a rottennesse.
13 When Ephraim sawe his sickenes, and Iudah his wound, then went Ephraim vnto [Note: [m] In steade of seeking for remedie at Gods hand. ] Asshur, and sent vnto King [Note: [n] Who was king of the Assyrians. ] Iareb: yet coulde hee not heale you, nor cure you of your wound.
14 For I will be vnto Ephraim as a lyon, and as a lyons whelpe to the house of Iudah: I, euen I will spoyle, and goe away: I will take away, and none shall rescue it.
15 I will go, and returne to my place, til they acknowledge their fault, and seeke me: in their affliction they will seeke me diligently.
[The Lord woundeth and healeth.]
1 Affliction causeth a man to turne to God. 9 The wickednesse of the Priestes.
1 Come, and let vs [Note: [a] He sheweth the people howe they ought to turne to the Lord, that he might call backe his plagues. ] returne to the Lord: for he hath spoyled, and he will heale vs: he hath wounded vs, and he will binde vs vp.
2 After two dayes will [Note: [b] Though he correct vs from time to time, yet his helpe will not be farre of, if we returne to him. ] he reuiue vs, and in the third day he will raise vs vp, and we shall liue in his sight.
3 Then shall we haue knowledge, and indeuour our selues to know the Lord: his going forth is prepared as the morning, and he shall come vnto vs as the raine, and as the latter raine vnto the earth.
4 O Ephraim, what shall I doe vnto thee? O Iudah, how shall I intreate thee? for [Note: [c] You seeme to haue a certaine holinesse and repentance, but it is vpon the sudden, and as a morning cloude. ] your goodnesse is as a morning cloude, and as the morning dewe it goeth away.
5 Therefore haue I [Note: [d] I haue still laboured by my prophets, and as it were, framed you to bring you to amendement, but all was in vaine: for my word was not meate to feede them, but a sworde to slaye them. ] cut downe by the Prophets: I haue slaine them by the wordes of my mouth, and [Note: [e] My doctrine which I taught thee, was most euident. ] thy iudgements were as the light that goeth forth.
6 For I desired [Note: [f] He sheweth to what scope his doctrine tended, that they should ioyne the obedience of God, and the loue of their neighbour with outward sacrifice. ] mercie, and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more then burnt offrings.
7 But they like [Note: [g] That is, like light and weake persons. ] men haue transgressed the couenant: there haue they trespassed against me.
8 [Note: [h] Which was the place where the Priests dwelt, & which should haue bene best instructed in my word. ] Gilead is a citie of them that worke iniquitie, and is polluted with blood.
9 And as the eues waite for a man, so the companie of Priestes murther in the way by consent: for they worke mischiefe.
10 I haue seene vileny in the house of Israel: there is ye whoredome of Ephraim: Israel is defiled.
11 Yea, Iudah hath set a [Note: [i] That is, doeth imitate thine idolatrie, & hath taken graftes of thy trees. ] plant for thee, whiles I woulde returne ye captiuitie of my people.
1 Of the vices and wantonnesse of the people. 12 Of their punishment.
1 When I woulde haue healed Israel, then the iniquitie of Ephraim was discouered, and the wickednesse of Samaria: for they haue dealt falsly: and [Note: [a] Meaning, that there was no one kinde of vice among them, but that they were subiect to all wickednesse, both secret and open. ] the theefe commeth in, and the robber spoyleth without.
2 And they consider not in their hearts, that I remember all their wickednes: now their owne inuentions haue beset them about: they are in my sight.
3 They make the [Note: [b] They esteeme their wicked king Ieroboam aboue God, and seeke but howe to flatter and please him. ] King glad with their wickednesse, and the princes with their lies.
4 They are all adulterers, and as a very [Note: [c] He compareth the rage of the people to a burning ouen which the baker heateth still tyll his dough be leauened and raysed. ] ouen heated by ye baker, which ceaseth from raysing vp, and from kneading ye dough vntill it be leauened.
5 This is the [Note: [d] They vsed all ryot and excesse in their feastes and solemnities, wherby their King was ouercome with surfet, and brought into diseases, & delited in flatteries. ] day of our King: the princes haue made him sicke with flagons of wine: he stretcheth out his hand to scorners.
6 For they haue made ready their heart like an ouen whiles they lie in waite: their baker sleepeth all the night: in the morning it burneth as a flame of fire.
7 They are all hote as an ouen, and haue [Note: [e] By their occasion God hath depriued them of all good rulers. ] deuoured their iudges: all their Kings are fallen: there is none among them that calleth vnto me.
8 Ephraim hath [Note: [f] That is, he counterfaiteth the religion of the Gentiles, yet is but as a cake baked on ye one side, & raw on the other, that is, neither through hot nor through cold, but partly a Iew, & partly a Gentile. ] mixt himselfe among the people. Ephraim is as a cake on the hearth not turned.
9 Strangers haue deuoured his strength, and
[The calfe of Samaria.]
he knoweth it not: yea, [Note: [g] Which are a token of his manifolde afflictions. ] gray heares are here and there vpon him, yet he knoweth not.
10 And the pride of Israel testifieth to his face, and they doe not returne to the Lorde their God, nor seeke him for all this.
11 Ephraim also is like a doue deceiued, without [Note: [h] That is, without all iudgement, as they that can not tell whether it is better to cleaue onely to God, or to seeke the helpe of man. ] heart: they call to Egypt: they go to Asshur.
12 But when they shal go, I will spred my net vpon them, and drawe them downe as the foules of the heauen: I will chastice them as their [Note: [i] According to my curses made to the whole congregation of Israel. ] congregation hath heard.
13 Wo vnto them: for they haue fled away from me: destruction shalbe vnto them, because they haue transgressed against me: though I haue [Note: [k] That is, diuers times redeemed them, and deliuered them from death. ] redeemed them, yet they haue spoken lyes against me.
14 And they haue not cryed vnto me with their hearts, [Note: [l] When they were in affliction and cryed out for paine, they sought not vnto me for helpe. ] when they houled vpon their beds: [Note: [m] They onely seeke their owne commoditie and wealth, and passe not for me their God. ] they assembled themselues for corne, and wine, and they rebell against me.
15 Though I haue boud & strengthened their arme, yet doe they imagine mischiefe against me.
16 They returne, but not to the most high: they are like a deceitfull bowe: their princes shall fall by the sword, for the rage [Note: [n] Because they boast of their owne strength, and passe not what they speake against me and my seruants, Psalm.73.9. ] of their tongues: this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt.
1 The destruction of Iudah & Israel, because of their idolatrie.
1 Set the trumpet to thy [Note: [a] God encourageth the Prophet to signifie the speedie comming of the enemie against Israel, which was once the people of God. ] mouth: he shall come as an egle against the House of the Lord, because they haue transgressed my couenant, & trespassed against my Lawe.
2 Israel shall [Note: [b] They shall crye like hypocrites, but not from the heart, as their deedes declare. ] crie vnto me, My God, we know thee.
3 Israel hath cast off ye thing that is good: the enemie shall pursue him.
4 They haue set vp a [Note: [c] That is, Ieroboam, by whom they sought their owne libertie, and not to obey my will. ] King, but not by me: they haue made princes, and I knew it not: of their siluer and their gold haue they made them idoles: therefore shall they be destroyed.
5 Thy calfe, O Samaria, hath cast thee off: mine anger is kindled against them: howe long will they be without [Note: [d] That is, vpright iudgement and godly life. ] innocencie!
6 [Note: [e] Meaning, the calfe was inuented by themselues, and of their fathers in the wildernesse. ] For it came euen from Israel: the workeman made it, therefore it is not God: but the calfe of Samaria shall be broken in pieces.
7 For they haue [Note: [f] Shewing yt their religion hath but a shewe, and in it selfe is but vanitie. ] sowne the winde, and they shall reape the whirlewind: it hath no stalke: the budde shall bring foorth no meale: if so be it bring forth, the strangers shall deuoure it.
8 Israel is deuoured, now shall they be among the Gentiles as a vessell wherein is no pleasure.
9 For they are gone vp to Asshur: they are as a [Note: [g] They neuer cease but run to & fro to seeke helpe. ] wilde asse alone by himselfe: Ephraim hath hired louers.
10 Yet though they haue hired among the nations, nowe will I gather them, and they shall sorowe a litle, for the [Note: [h] That is, for the tribute which the King and the princes shall lay vpon them: which meanes the Lord vseth to bring them to repentace. ] burden of the King and the princes.
11 Because Ephraim hath made many altars to sinne, his altars shalbe to sinne.
12 I haue written to them the great things of my Lawe: but they were counted as a [Note: [i] Thus the idolaters count the word of God as strange in respect of their owne inuentions. ] strange thing.
13 They sacrifice flesh for ye sacrifices of mine offerings, and eate it: but the [Note: [k] Saying that they offer it to ye Lord, but he accepteth no seruice, which he himselfe hath not appointed. ] Lorde accepteth them not: now will he remember their iniquitie, and visite their sinnes: they shall returne to Egypt.
14 For Israel hath forgotten his maker, and buildeth Temples, & Iudah hath increased strong cities: but I will sende a fire vpon his cities, and it shall deuoure the palaces thereof.
Of the hunger and captiuitie of Israel.
1 Reioyce not, O Israel for ioy [Note: [a] For though all other people shuld escape, yet thou shalt be punished. ] as other people: for thou hast gone a whoring from thy God: thou hast loued [Note: [b] Thou hast committed idolatrie in hope of rewarde, and to haue thy barnes filled, Iere. 44.17. as an harlot that had rather liue by playing the whore then to be intertained of her owne husbad. ] a rewarde vpon euery corne floore.
2 [Note: [c] These outward things that thou seekest, shalbe taken from thee. ] The floore, and the wine presse shall not feede them, and the newe wine shall faile in her.
3 They wil not dwel in the Lordes lande, but Ephraim will returne to Egypt, and they will eate vncleane things in Asshur.
4 They shall not offer [Note: [d] All their doings both touching policie and religion, shall be reiected as things polluted. ] wine to the Lorde, neither shall their sacrifices be pleasant vnto him: but they shall be vnto them as the bread of mourners: al that eate thereof, shalbe polluted: for their bread [Note: [e] The meat offring which they offred for themselues. ] for their soules shall not come into the house of the Lord.
5 What wil ye do [Note: [f] When the Lord shall take away all the occasions of seruing him, which shall be the most grieuous point of your captiuitie, when ye shall see your selues cut off from God. ] then in the solemne day, and in the day of the feast of the Lord?
6 For loe, they are gone from [Note: [g] Though they thinke to escape by fleeing the destruction that is at hande, yet shall they be destroied in the place whither they flee for succour. ] destruction: but Egypt shal gather them vp, and Memphis shall burie them: the nettle shall possesse the pleasant places of their siluer, and the thorne shall be in their tabernacles.
7 The daies of visitation are come: the daies of recompence are come: Israel shall knowe it: [Note: [h] Then they shall knowe that they were deluded by them who chalenged to themselues to be their Prophets and spiritual men. ] the Prophet is a foole: the spiritual man is mad, for the multitude of thine iniquitie: therefore the hatred is great.
8 The watchman of Ephraim [Note: [i] The Prophets duetie is to bring men to God and not to be a snare to pull them from God. ] shoulde bee with my God: but the Prophet is the snare of a fouler in all his waies, and hatred in the House of his God.
9 They [Note: [k] This people is so rooted in their wickednesse, that Gibeah which was like to Sodom, was neuer more corrupt, Iud.19.22. ] are deepely set: they are corrupt as in the daies of Gibeah: therefore he will remember their iniquitie, he will visite their sinnes.
10 I found Israel like [Note: [l] Meaning, that hee so esteemed them and delited in them. ] grapes in the wildernes: I saw your fathers as the first ripe in the figge tree at her first time: but they went to Baal-Peor, and separated themselues vnto that shame, and their abominations were according to [Note: [m] They were as abominable vnto mee, as their louers the idols. ] their louers.
11 Ephraim their glorie shall flee away like a birde: from the birth [Note: [n] Signifying, that God woulde destroy their children by these sundrie meanes, and so consume them by litle and litle. ] and from the wombe, and from the conception.
12 Though they bring vp their children, yet I will depriue them from being men: yea, woe to them, when I depart from them.
13 Ephraim, as I sawe, is as a tree [Note: [o] As they kept tender plantes in their houses in Tyrus to preserue them from the colde aire of the Sea, so was Ephraim at the first vnto me, but nowe I wil giue him to the slaughter. ] in Tyrus planted in a cottage: but Ephraim shal bring forth his children to the murtherer.
14 O Lorde, giue them: what wilt thou giue them? giue them a [Note: [p] The Prophet seeing the great plagues of God toward Ephraim, praieth to God to make them baren, rather then that this great slaughter should come vpon their children. ] baren wombe and drie breasts.
15 All their wickednesse is in [Note: [q] The chiefe cause of their destruction is that they commit idolatrie, and corrupt my religion in Gilgal. ] Gilgal: for there doe I hate them: for the wickednesse of their inuentions, I will cast them out of mine House: I will loue them no more: all their princes are rebels.
16 Ephraim is smitten, their roote is dried vp:
[The calfe of Israel.]
they can bring no fruite: yea, though they bring foorth, yet will I slaie euen the dearest of their bodie.
17 My God will cast them away, because they did not obey him: and they shall wander among the nations.
1 Against Israel and his idoles. 14 His destruction for the same.
1 Israel is a [Note: [a] Whereof though the grapes were gathered, yet euer as it gathered new strength, it increased newe wickednesse, so that the correction which shoulde haue brought them to obedience, did but vtter their stubbernesse. ] emptie vine, yet hath it brought foorth fruite vnto it selfe, and according to the multitude of the fruite thereof he hath increased the altars: according to the [Note: [b] As they were riche and had abundance. ] goodnesse of their lande they haue made faire images.
2 Their heart is [Note: [c] To wit, from God. ] deuided: nowe shall they be founde faultie: he shall breake downe their altars: he shall destroy their images.
3 For now they shal say, We haue no [Note: [d] The day shall come that God shall take away their King, and then they shall feele the fruite of their sinnes, and howe they trusted in him in vaine, 2.King.17.6,7. ] King because we feared not the Lord: and what should a King doe to vs?
4 They haue spoken woordes, swearing falsly in making [Note: [e] In promising to be faithfull towarde God. ] a couenant: thus [Note: [f] Thus their integritie and fidelitie which they pretended, was nothing but bitternes and griefe. ] iudgement groweth as wormewoode in the furrowes of the fielde.
5 The inhabitants of Samaria shal [Note: [g] When the calfe shall be caried away. ] feare because of the calfe of Beth-auen: for the people thereof shall mourne ouer it, and the [Note: [h] Chemarims were certeine idolatrous priestes, which did weare blacke apparell in their sacrifices and cried with a loude voyce: which superstition Eliah derided, 1.King. 18.27. read 2.king. 23.5. ] Chemarims thereof, that reioyced on it for the glorie thereof, because it is departed from it.
6 It shall bee also brought to Asshur, for a present vnto King Iareb: Ephraim shall receiue shame, and Israel shall be ashamed of his owne counsell.
7 Of Samaria, the King thereof is destroyed as the some vpon the water.
8 The hie places also of [Note: [i] This he speaketh in contempt of Beth el, reade Chap.4.15. ] Auen shall be destroied, euen the sinne of Israel: the thorne and the thistle shall growe vpon their altars, and they shal say to the mountaines, [Note: Isa.2.19. luk 23.30. reuel.6.16. & 9.6. ] Couer vs, and to the hils, Fall vpon vs.
9 O Israel, thou hast [Note: [k] In those daies wast thou as wicked as the Gibeonites, as God there partly declared: for thy zeale coulde not bee good in executing Gods iudgements, seeing thine owne deedes were as wicked as theirs. ] sinned from the daies of Gibeah: there they [Note: [l] To wit, to fight, or the Israelites remained in that stubburnesse from that time. ] stoode: the battell in Gibeah against the children of iniquitie did not [Note: [m] The Israelites were not mooued by their example to cease from their sinnes. ] touch them.
10 It is my desire [Note: [n] Because they are so desperate, I will delight to destroy them. ] that I should chastice them, and the people shall be gathered against them, when they shall gather themselues in their two [Note: [o] That is, when they haue gathered all their strength together. ] furrowes.
11 And Ephraim is as an heifer vsed to delite [Note: [p] Wherein is pleasure, as in plowing is labour and paine. ] in threshing: but I will passe by her [Note: [q] I will laie my yoke vpon her fatte necke. ] faire necke: I will make Ephraim to ride: Iudah shall plowe, and Iaakob shall breake his cloddes.
12 Sowe to your selues in righteousnes: reape after the measure of mercy: [Note: [r] Reade Ieremie 4 4. ] breake vp your fallowe grounde: for it is time to seeke the Lorde, till he come and raine righteousnesse vpon you.
13 But you haue plowed wickednesse: ye haue reaped iniquitie: you haue eaten the fruite of lies: because thou didest trust in thine owne waies, and in the multitude of thy strong men,
14 Therefore shall a tumult arise among thy people, and all thy munitions shall be destroyed, as [Note: [s] That is, Shalmanazzar in the destruction of that citie spared neither kinde nor age. ] Shalman destroyed Beth-arbell in the daie [Page]
[God did beare Israel.]
of battell: the mother with the children was dashed in pieces.
15 So shall Beth-el doe vnto you, because of your malicious wickednes: in a morning shall the King of Israel be destroied.
1 The benefits of the Lord toward Israel. 5 Their ingratitude against him.
1 When Israel [Note: [a] Whiles the Israelites were in Egypt and did not prouoke my wrath by their malice and ingratitude. ] was a childe, then I loued him, and called my sonne out of Egypt.
2 They called them, but they [Note: [b] They rebelled and went a contrary way when the Prophets called them to repentance. ] went thus from them: they sacrificed vnto Baalim, and burnt incense to images.
3 I ledde Ephraim also, as one shoulde beare them in his armes: but they knewe not that I healed them.
4 I led them with cordes [Note: [c] That is, friendly: and not as beastes or slaues. ] of a man, euen with bandes of loue, and I was to them, as hee that taketh off the yoke from their iawes, and I laide the meat vnto them.
5 He shall no more returne into the lande of Egypt: but Asshur shalbe his [Note: [d] Seeing they contemne al this kindnesse, they shall be led captiue into Assyria. ] King, because they refused to conuert.
6 And the sworde shall fall on his cities, and shall consume his barres, and deuoure them, because of their owne counsels.
7 And my people are bent to rebellion against me: though [Note: [e] To wit, the Prophets. ] they called them to the most hie, yet none at all would exalt him.
8 [Note: [f] God considereth with himselfe, and that with a certein griefe how to punish them. ] Howe shall I giue thee vp, Ephraim? howe shall I deliuer thee, Israel? how shall I make thee, as [Note: [g] Which were two of the cities that were destroied wt Sodom, deu.29.23. ] Admah? howe shall I set thee, as Zeboim? mine heart is turned within mee: [Note: [h] Meaning, that his loue wherwith he first loued them, made him betweene doute and assurance what to doe: and herein appeareth his fatherly affection, that his mercy towarde his shall ouercome his iudgements, as he declareth in the next verse. ] my repentings are rouled together.
9 I wil not execute ye fiercenesse of my wrath: I will not returne to destroy Ephraim: for I am God, and not man, the holy one in the middes of thee, and I will not [Note: [i] To cosume thee, but will cause thee to yelde and so receiue thee to mercie: and this is ment of the small nomber who shall walke after the Lorde. ] enter into the citie.
10 They shall walke after the Lorde: he shall roare like a lyon: when hee shall roare, then the children of the West shall feare.
11 [Note: [k] The Egyptians and Assyrians shall bee afraide when the Lorde mainteineth his people. ] They shal feare as a sparrow out of Egypt, and as a doue of the lande of Asshur, and I will place them in their houses, sayth the Lord.
12 Ephraim copasseth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit: but Iudah yet ruleth [Note: [l] Gouerneth their state according to Gods woorde, and doeth not degenerate. ] with God, and is faithfull with the Saints.
He admonisheth by Iaakobs example to trust in God, and not in man.
1 Ephraim is fed [Note: [a] That is, flattereth him selfe wt vaine confidence. ] with the winde, and followeth after the East winde: hee increaseth daily lies and destruction, & they do make a couenant with Asshur, and [Note: [b] Meaning, presents to get friendship. ] oyle is caried into Egypt.
2 The Lorde hath also a controuersie with [Note: [c] Which in these pointes was like to Ephraim, but not in idolatries. ] Iudah, and will visite Iaakob, according to his waies: according to his workes, wil he recompence him.
3 Hee tooke his brother by the heele in the wombe, and by his strength he had [Note: [d] Seeing that God did thus preferre Iaakob their father, Iudahs ingratitude was the more to be abhorred. ] power with God,
4 And had [Note: [e] Read Gen.32.31. ] power ouer the Angel, and preuailed: he wept and praied vnto him: [Note: [f] God found Iaakob as he lay sleeping in Bethel, Gene.28.12. and so spake with him there, that the fruite of that speache apperteined to the whole bodie of the people, whereof we are. ] he founde him in Beth-el, and there he spake with vs.
[To kisse the calues.]
5 Yea, the Lorde God of hostes, the Lorde is himselfe his memoriall.
6 Therefore turne thou to thy God: keepe mercy and iudgement, and hope still in thy God.
7 He is [Note: [g] As for Ephraim he is more like the wicked Canaanites then godly Abraham or Iaakob. ] Canaan: the balances of deceit are in his hand: he loueth to oppresse.
8 And Ephraim saide, Notwithstanding I am rich, I haue found me out riches in all my labours: they shall finde none iniquitie in me, [Note: [h] Thus the wicked measure Gods fauour by outward prosperitie, and like hypocrits can not abide that any should reprooue their doings. ] that were wickednesse.
9 Though I am the Lorde thy God, from the land of Egypt, yet will I make thee to dwel in the tabernacles, as in [Note: [i] Seeing thou wilt not acknowledge my benefites, I will bring thee againe to dwell in tents as in the feast of the Tabernacles, which thou doest nowe contemne. ] the daies of the solemne feast.
10 I haue also spoken by the Prophets, and I haue multiplied visions, and vsed similitudes by the ministerie of the Prophets.
11 Is there [Note: [k] The people thought that no man durst haue spoken against Gilead, that holy place, and yet the Prophet sayeth, that all their religion was but vanitie. ] iniquitie in Gilead? surely they are vanitie: they sacrifice bullocks in Gilgal, and their altars are as heapes in the furrowes of the field.
12 [Note: [l] If you boast of your richesse and nobilitie, yee seeme to reproche your father who was a poore fugitiue and seruant. ] And Iaakob fled into the countrey of Aram, and Israel serued for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheepe.
13 And by a [Note: [m] Meaning Moses, whereby appeareth, that whatsoeuer they haue, it commeth of Gods free goodnesse. ] Prophet the Lord brought Israel out of Egypt, & by a Prophet was he reserued.
14 But Ephraim prouoked him with hie places: therefore shal his blood be powred vpon him, and his reproche shall his Lord reward him.
1 The abomination of Israel, 9 And the cause of their destruction.
1 When Ephraim spake, there was [Note: [a] He sheweth the excellencie, and autoritie that this tribe had aboue all the rest. ] trembling: hee [Note: [b] He made a king of his tribe. ] exalted him selfe in Israel, but he hath sinned in Baal, [Note: [c] The Ephraimites are not farre from destruction, and haue lost their autoritie. ] and is dead.
2 And nowe they sinne more and more, and haue made them molten images of their siluer, and idoles according to their owne vnderstanding: they were all the woorke of the craftesmen: they say one to another whiles they sacrifice a [Note: [d] The false Prophets perswaded the idolaters to offer their children after the example of Abraham, and he sheweth howe they would exhort one another to the same, and to kisse and worship these calues which were their idoles. ] man, Let them kisse the calues.
3 Therefore they shall bee as the morning cloude, and as the morning dewe that passeth away, as the chaffe that is driuen with a whirlewind out of the floore, and as the smoke that goeth out of the chimney.
4 Yet I am the Lord thy God [Note: [e] He calleth them to repentance and reproueth their ingratitude. ] from the land of Egypt, and thou shalt knowe no God but me: for there is no Sauiour beside me.
5 I did knowe thee in the wildernesse, in the land of drought.
6 As in their pastures, so were they filled: they were filled, and their heart was exalted: therefore haue they forgotten me.
7 And I wil be vnto them as a very lyon, and as a leopard in the way of Asshur.
8 I will meete them, as a beare that is robbed of her whelpes, and I will breake the kall of their heart, and there will I deuoure them like a lion: the wilde beast shall teare them.
9 O Israel, one [Note: [f] Thy destruction is certaine, and my benefites towarde thee declare that it commeth not of mee: therefore thine owne malice, idolatrie and vaine confidence in men must needes be the cause thereof. ] hath destroyed thee, but in me is thine helpe.
10 [Note: [g] I am all one, Iames 1.17. ] I am: where is thy King, that shoulde help thee in al thy cities? and thy iudges, of whom thou saidest, Giue me a King, and princes?
11 I gaue thee a King in mine anger, and I tooke him away in my wrath.
[God is death vnto death.]
12 The iniquitie of Ephraim is [Note: [h] It is surely layd vp to be punished, as Iere.17.1. ] bound vp: his sinne is hid.
13 The sorowes of a trauailing woman shall come vpon him: he is an vnwise sonne, els would he not stande still at the time, euen at the [Note: [i] But would come out of the wombe, that is, out of this danger wherein he is, and not tary to be stifeled. ] breaking forth of the children.
14 I wil redeeme them from the power of the graue: I will deliuer them from death: O [Note: [k] Meaning, that no power shal resist God when he wil deliuer his but eue in death wil he giue them life. ] death, I wil be thy death: O graue, I will be thy destruction: [Note: [l] Because they wil not turne to me, I will not change my purpose. ] repentance is hid from mine eyes.
15 Though he grewe vp among his brethren, an East winde shall come, euen the winde of the Lord shal come vp from the wildernesse, and drie vp his veine, and his fountaine shalbe dryed vp: he shal spoyle the treasure of all pleasant vessels.
1 The destruction of Samaria. 2 He exhorteth Israel to turne to God, who requireth praise and thankes.
1 Samaria shalbe desolate: for she hath rebelled against her God: they shal fall by the sworde: their infants shalbe dashed in pieces, & their women with childe shalbe ript.
2 O Israel, [Note: [a] He exhorteth them to repentance, to auoyde all these plagues, willing them to declare by wordes their obedience & repentance. ] returne vnto the Lord thy God: for thou hast fallen by thine iniquitie.
3 Take vnto you words, & turne to the Lord, and say vnto him, [Note: [b] He sheweth the howe they ought to confesse their sinnes. ] Take away all iniquitie, and
[Calues of the lippes.]
receiue vs graciously: so wil we render the calues of our [Note: [c] Declaring, that this is the true sacrifice, that the faithful can offer, euen thankes and praise, Heb 13.15. ] lippes.
4 Asshur shal [Note: [d] We will leaue off all vaine confidence and pride. ] not saue vs, neither wil we ride vpon horses, neither will we say any more to the worke of our handes, Ye are our gods: for in thee the fatherlesse findeth mercie.
5 [Note: [e] He declareth how ready God is to receiue them that do repent. ] I wil heale their rebellion: I wil loue them freely: for mine anger is turned away from him.
6 I will be as the dewe vnto Israel: he shall grow as the lilie and fasten his rootes, as the trees of Lebanon.
7 His branches shall spread, and his beautie shalbe as the oliue tree, and his smel as Lebanon.
8 They that dwel vnder his [Note: [f] Whosoeuer ioyne themselues to this people, shalbe blessed. ] shadow, shal returne: they shall reuiue as the corne, and florish as the vine: the sent thereof shalbe as the wine of Lebanon.
9 Ephraim shal say, What haue I to doe any more with idoles? I [Note: [g] God sheweth how prompt he is to heare his, when they repent, and to offer himselfe, as a protection, & sauegard vnto them, as a most sufficient fruite and profite. ] haue heard him, and looked vpon him: I am like a greene firre tree: vpon me is thy fruite founde.
10 Who is [Note: [h] Signifying, that the true wisedome & knowledge consisteth in this, euen to rest vpon God. ] wise, and he shall vnderstande these things? and prudent, and he shall knowe them? for the wayes of the Lorde are righteous, and the iust shall walke in them: but the wicked shal fall therein.